Ugly swedish girl

Added: Alexzander Routt - Date: 01.12.2021 18:23 - Views: 35983 - Clicks: 7118

Girls face gendered violence on an everyday basis, and this may have severe health consequences. Purpose: The aim of this study was to learn about gendered violence facing girls in rural Sweden in their everyday life, as it is experienced by the girls themselves. Method: Using the photovoice method, we worked with 35 girls in an upper secondary school, aged between 16 and 20, to explore how they navigated social spaces and developed strategies for increased safety.

Conclusion: We considered how gendered violence facing girls led to fear and marginalization in a range of situations and interactions. Consequently, girls occupied ificantly smaller social spaces compared to boys, and we argue that this was reproduced and upheld through everyday practices informed by hegemonic masculinity and performativity. Violence against women is a global public health problem of epidemic proportions that penetrates all parts of society and knows no cultural or economic limitations Ellsberg et al. This violence is not only facing adult women but also girls and young women.

According to international studies, both gendered violence and social inequalities have serious health effects. However, recent reports show that approximately one-third of Swedish women do not feel safe outside alone late at night, and some women avoid going out after a certain time because they fear experiencing violence Axell, This fear is not unfounded, given that evidence presented by European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, which suggests that Sweden Ugly swedish girl a ificantly higher rate of physical, sexual, and psychological violence than the European Union EU average.

While statistics indicate progress towards equality on a macro level, the vulnerability of women and girls on a micro level may in fact be masked by these statistics. This leaves a gap in the research covering violence against young women in rural areas within social contexts outside of intimate partner relationships. There is a need to understand gendered violence in the realm of public spaces and social contexts from the perspective of girls and young women. This study examines violence perpetrated by boys against girls from a heteronormative position.

Therefore, same-sex violence or violence perpetrated by girls against boys is not considered here. This concept refers to behaviour and interactions that establish masculine or feminine activities. Looking at gender as performativity and social constructs, based on heteronormative values anchored in bodily practices, reveals patterns of dominance and subordination. Gendered violence largely merges with performances of hegemonic masculinity Robinson, Therefore, we can also apply the concept of hegemonic masculinity to understand structures that influence attitudes among boys and young men, as well as in relation to and among girls and young women.

The aim of this study is to learn about gendered violence facing girls in their everyday life in rural Sweden, as Ugly swedish girl by the girls themselves. The study was conducted in a rural upper secondary school in the northern part of Sweden. We invited learners from one vocational program, two theoretical programs, and newly arrived migrant girls who attended a special language program. Photovoice and research questions were embedded in the ordinary curriculum for the theoretical and vocational program, so project tasks were mandatory for students registered for those programs, but participation in the research project was voluntary.

Students who chose to abstain from participation in the research were put into a group of their own and from this group, none of the photographs were included in any research material and workshops were not audio recorded. The research project involved 35 girls, five of whom were newly arrived migrants.

They were divided into five different groups, based on which education program they were enrolled in. However, we acknowledge that there are variations in gender identities and sexual orientations. The rural school with which we collaborated is the only upper secondary school in the region.

Some students live in the area, but the majority of students live in the surrounding rural areas and commute daily. Participants were divided into small groups ranging from six to eight girls. Each group met for five workshops over a period of six weeks on average. Each workshop, framed by photovoice, lasted between 60 and minutes. Ahead of every workshop, the girls were prompted to take 3 to 5 pictures to display, share, and discuss in a group.

The pictures were sent to the first and third author, who printed the photographs and facilitated the workshops. During the workshops, each girl presented their photos one at a time and what it meant before the group could comment and ask questions. All conversations were audio-recorded using a digital voice recorder and transcribed verbatim. The presented in this paper are from the analysis of the discussions from the workshops, hence in this way the are not co-constructed.

However the participants have been a large part of developing the themes and subthemes throughout the project and co-constructed will be presented elsewhere. In this article, we have used photovoice for two purposes: 1 for social change and 2 as a data collection method. In Phase 3, we aimed to address the purpose of the study, i. The girls were asked to bring the pictures to the next workshop, and to elaborate on why they took the photo and what it represented to them.

To indicate feelings of safety, participants took pictures of items and spaces such as their front door, their own room, and details of interiors. Pictures of items and situations such as liquor bottles, dark tunnels, and being followed by men represented feelings of being unsafe. What is really happening here? How does this relate to our lives? Why does this situation exist? What can we do about it? In Phase 4 of the study, the workshops focused on the questions: Ugly swedish girl are the different forms of violence against girls in your school or community?

The girls took photographs of, for example, bullying, groping, bruises, and online harassment to represent different forms of violence. The consequences of the represented violence were partly shown through photographs of self-harm, mental illness, failing school, and suicide.

During the workshops we continuously returned to the importance of privacy and respect with regards to the images, to avoid reproducing stereotyped narratives. The third part of photovoice, which is to reach policy makers is included in the Ugly swedish girl project, and throughout the project data has been utilized in many different ways. Together with the girls, we have created and photo exhibition that has been recognized by the county government and widely presented.

The different strategies and ways to reach policy makers is however not included in this paper, but will be elaborated on elsewhere. Examples of photographs taken by participants, illustrating violence. Figure 1. The analysis started with a deductive approach based on the specific issues raised by the prompts.

Due to the participatory nature of photovoice, the girls themselves played a large part of developing and categorizing data in this phase. As new data emerged from the material through workshop discussions, an inductive approach was applied. Discussions about the prompts and the photographs showed that gender intersects with existing values on how to act, look, and behave.

Ugly swedish girl

Discussions on how the girls in the study perceive their environment, Ugly swedish girl and interactions has made a large contribution to the transition from a deductive to an inductive approach. Workshops and conversations, combined with early observations and personal notes, catered for the first stage, 1 familiarizing yourself with your data. Data transcription was carried out by the first author, and this process played a ificant part in getting familiar with the data. While reading through the material repeatedly to obtain a sense of the meaning of the text as a whole, key words and reflections were written down in order to discern recurring themes.

The coding process, 2 generating initial codesstarted with the categorization of themes discussed during workshops related to the prompts presented in Phases 3 and 4 under Process and Procedure. During the next step, 3 searching for themesquotes and sentences were extracted and grouped according to repeated themes which related to the aim of the study. The coding was influenced by the existing theories of Butlerand Connell and Messerschmidt While some initial codes were merely renamed, other initial codes were merged and formed new themes.

The next stage, 4 reviewing themesentailed revisiting all selected quotes and extracts to ensure coherence and connections. The final stage, 5 defining and naming themesacted as a control to ensure relevance to the aim of the study.

Ugly swedish girl

At the end of this procedure, following further changes, two main themes and four sub-themes were created. Procedure, structure of themes, and credibility checks was frequently discussed between the authors.

Ugly swedish girl

In Phase 1 of the study, students and teachers were given a presentation about the project detailing its aims and concerns, followed by ethical instructions about anonymity and confidentiality. Information was given in verbal and written format, along with photo ethics, to ensure that potential participants had an appropriate understanding of the procedure and purpose of the study.

This process also ensured that they were aware of their right to withdraw from participation without negative consequences. Students wishing to take part then ed a written consent form. We provide further interpretations in the discussion. The second theme, strategiesfocus on the strategies that girls employ to manage their constant fear. This theme is also divided, in two sub-themes, Ugly swedish girl a discussion of how gender norms inform behaviour and expectations.

Being exposed to gendered violence, subtle expressions of gendered power such as gazes and rumours, and calculating possible risks linked to this several times a day, can all contribute to the building up of a constant state of fear. The participants also expressed a constant awareness of how their behaviour directly influenced how they were perceived by others. Two main themes relating to fear were identified, as presented below:.

The fear that the girls talked about also included other threats such as being held against their will, and being hit, but rape was the most distinct fear to emerge from our discussions. The girls discussed an incident that allegedly happened in another upper secondary school where one of them, Sandra, was ly a student. The other members of the group were familiar with the incident through rumours.

A girl had been raped by an older boy who was not a student during school hours, and the group discussed the damage that this had caused: Ann: A girl was raped in a toilet cubicle at school, everybody knew, there were lots of evidence, she was thirteen and he was twenty. He got sentenced to two months. Where is the justice in that? A frustration was apparent among the girls regarding lack of support for the violated girl, as well as the insecurity and fear it caused other girls at the school.

Several girls expressed anger linked to the probability of the girl being blamed for being raped, as well as being considered disgusting Ugly swedish girl dirty by others. When discussing physical and psychological violence, the girls agreed that it is the latter that never heals; bruises fade, but the psychological damage will always remain. There are visible gender norms, informed by patriarchal structures, which are attached to heteronormative ideas and attitudes among the girls in relation to performativity.

These norms affect daily concerns about physical appearance, and these concerns are visible in how the girls discuss and develop safety strategies through appearance: Sandra: … You may feel uncomfortable if you wear a certain kind of outfit. A skirt can make you feel vulnerable, you can feel vulnerable [unsafe] if you wear your hair tied up or loose, if you wear makeup or not …. Alva reacts to this comment and asks, with a firm tone, what she means by that. She speculates whether these attitudes, in other girls, might be rooted in jealousy. The quotes above reveal that there is an awareness of possible consequences of putting up resistance, and these contradictory positions are visible when the girls talk about how to handle unwanted attention from boys.

During the discussions it became evident how the girls apply different strategies to avoid risks and how these strategies are related to the constant state of fear. Experiencing fear when walking alone at night was common, and some of the mentioned strategies were holding keys in their hands, owning a legally approved self-defence spray, avoid walking alone late hours or call someone while walking, avoid certain public spaces and walk with confidence.

In conversations about this, several girls nodded their he in recognition at descriptions of strategies to avoid fear. Denise: I try to always have someone walking home with me. Even though fear of men and rape surfaced as the most prominent among the girls, general fear is also something that relates to how one is viewed by others.

In the material we found two main strategies directly linked to fear, as presented below:. To understand this strategy, Ugly swedish girl begin with hegemonic norms linked to sexuality i. Girls in all groups expressed the view that girls need to act according to different gender expectations, compared to the boys.

Girls are not allowed to show their sexuality or anything, they must be nice and kind and not talk dirty, but guys are allowed to talk about everything. They [boys] can do what they want … they can break up with girls and get new ones … They can do whatever they want, so … they do everything. They are also visible in how the girls position themselves within these discussions of sexuality.

Ugly swedish girl

Girls are highly aware of the restricted spaces they occupy, and many of them continually try to guard their current space or push boundaries through various strategies. Calculations of vulnerability and safety go hand-in-hand with daily choices, and the girls have found numerous strategies to resist feelings of being unsafe.

The girls discussed some of Ugly swedish girl applied strategies to promote increased feelings of safety, which included acting confidently, standing up straight, walking fast, or calling someone: Clara: You arm up, you prepare. Yes, my mom has told me what to do when being out. Such strategies might be so integrated into daily routines that they are no longer considered to be specific safety strategies among the girls themselves.

As an example, one of the girls said that their group of friends always felt safe, so she could not relate to the notion of strategies at all. To demonstrate what she meant, she said that if for example one girl in the group needed the bathroom while in a public space, they made sure that she was accompanied by at least one other friend.

They never left anyone in the group alone or behind when walking home; therefore, they felt safe. When asked why she and her friends found it necessary to look after each other, she appeared very surprised. It seemed as if it had never occurred to her that what they were doing were, in fact, strategies to promote increased feeling of safety. Our findings consisted of two main themes: constant fear and the strategies girls employ against the fear ; and four sub-themes: fear of being raped, fear of being labelled and excluded, being appropriately sexually activeand appearance and performance for increased feeling of safety.

These findings contribute to the understanding of the challenges facing young girls in contemporary Sweden and highlight the importance of continuing to discuss gender related topics. Situations linked to gendered violence are related to constant negotiations of self-worth, safety, and wellbeing, entangled in fear and safety strategies. However, even though girls see and resist this gender hierarchy, they also unintentionally follow the existing patterns in society. Gendered violence functions as a form of social control, affecting girls largely through fear regardless of whether or Ugly swedish girl they have personally experienced violation Wendt, This is also visible in the report from The Swedish National Council for Crime PreventionAxell, which indicates that one-third of women in Sweden do not feel safe going out late at night.

Butler argues that gender is created and recreated through imitations of imitations that continuously are performed Butler, Conversations about female sexuality reveal several layers of ongoing gender constructions, performativity, and contradictory positions.

It was not until she was asked to explain what she said that she actually reflected on the comment and added that the attitude applied to others, not her. Since there are no direct parallel labels or risks for boys who conforms to heterosexual attitudes and behaviours, there are fewer restrictions on their sexuality. This creates a marginalized space for girls, and this restrictions provide a larger space for boys Jeffner, This reveals that while the girls actively resist and reject labels, they unconsciously position themselves accordingly to the same structures.

Ugly swedish girl

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