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This article discusses the mostly impeding impact of the traditional female role model on the learning success of Roma and Gypsy women — based on two interview studies with Roma and Gypsy women in Hungary about their educational biography — with focus on the case of Marianne, a Hungarian Gypsy woman, who has come from a background of multiple deprivations but has managed a successful educational career higher education graduation.
Her educational biography can be seen as typical for Roma and Gypsy women in Hungary. She Hungarian gypsy woman her university degree at the age of 40 years — with delays and breaks — mostly in evening courses in addition to family and work. During her studies, she questioned the traditional female role model and experienced strong identity crises in her educational career because of the incompatible attitudes of the majority and minority culture. The departure from tight and constricting family relationships was very distressing.
However, she also experienced the freedom to decide, could develop her talents, and took her life into her own hands, which altogether strengthened her self-esteem. This article is based on two interview studies with Roma and Gypsy women in Hungary about their educational biography Forray, ; Ohidy, ab. The first study Forray, aimed at exploring the sociological background of the first applicants. We wanted to find out who the new university students are. Following the civil initiative, the Gandhi High School was founded in Pecs.
The theoretical background of the Department of Romology of the University was established inwhich, like the university education of other minorities, provided training in languages, culture, history, and social competences basis was that the Roma, Gypsy population. It was one of the national minorities of the country, with the same rights as German, Slovak, Romanian, and other ethnic groups. Consequently, he has the right to study Hungarian gypsy woman own language and culture as well as other national minorities.
This was the legal basis for the establishment of the Gandhi High School in in and other knowledge. There was tremendous interest in training in the area around the country, soon living in other parts of the country. It seemed that long-delayed, unprecedented hopes were now being realized.
Most of the candidates Hungarian gypsy woman to this nationality, but many simply wanted to learn about such issues because of their interest or workplace relationships. The research question of the second study Ohidy, ab was: Which factors had — according to the opinion of the affected persons — an influence especially a positive impact on their success in the education system? To answer this, Ohidy chose the method of biographical narrative interviews.
The selection of the respondents was done with the snowball system and in accordance with two criteria: The interviewed women had to belong to the Roma and Gypsy minority in Hungary determined by both the self-definition and the definition of their environment and they had to have a university degree. The study allowed all degrees possible in Europe Bachelor, Master, diploma, state examination, and PhD.
The 10 biographical interviews were made by Andrea Ohidy in in Pecs and Budapest.
In addition, she also used expert interviews and analyzed statistical and empirical studies. Forray and Andras T. Recently, more Roma and Gypsy families have been willing to support the school career of their daughters, if they are willing to have children and do not neglect the household. In the second study Ohidy, bmost families considered a school career as a chance for social advancement. They knowingly assisted their children not only the boys but also the girls with their further education and studies.
In comparison with the former study Forray,we can assume that in these cases that the role of the family in general has positively changed. Marianne was 47 years old during the interview She has a university diploma in social politics. She comes from a Boyash familiy with four children. Since her elder sister was doing her PhD, the younger sister and the younger brother did not pursue further or higher education. Her father visited a vocational school and worked as a collier and later worked as an instructor in the same mine. Her mother visited a primary school and was housewife, although she worked as a semi-skilled by-worker as a cleaning lady, as a kitchen helper, as a caregiver, and as shop filler.
Marianne describes herself as bilingual Hungarian and Boyashalthough she can more understand than speak in the Boyash language. Her parents did not speak to her much in Boyash when she wasbecause it was forbidden to use this language in school and her elder siblings were forced to repeat school classes because of their Boyash mother tongue. AsMarianne lived with her family in a Gypsy settlement until she was 3 or 4 years old. Her memories about this time are very positive. The family was later forced to move to town in the beginning of the s due to a government decision to close the settlement.
The family had to move in a street with 12 families and was the only Roma family there. Her behavior helped to break the ice with Hungarian gypsy woman other neighbors. Marianne did not go to the nursery school, only visited a preschool class. She visited an integrated primary school 8 classes with a music faculty; they have Roma and non-Romren as well.
There Hungarian gypsy woman 1—2 Romren per class. But she knew that there were a lot of Roma and Gypsy children also in her familywho were sent to visit special Roma-classes or schools for special education. I learned well. I was a very talented. Her favorite topics were literature and history, biology, music, and sports. Marianne thinks she was good at school because the whole family read a lot. Her grandfather was a famous storyteller and her mother read a lot for the children and also established a reading club for women at home.
The children often read books aloud for adults, who could not read. In the seventh class, when they started to think about further education and career choices, the school director and teacher for mathematics, which was not her favorite topic and her marks were not there the best visited the family at home to speak about her future education with her parents.
However, the parents have not been convinced to follow his advice and after the primary school, Marianne was applying for a high school with a music faculty. She passed the entrance exam and got a place there. In the summer holidays, she was working in a spinning manufacture, where she found a nice team and earned money for the first time.
Marianne let them convince her and — without informing her parents about this decision — she Hungarian gypsy woman for a place in a vocational school to become a tailor and cancel her application for the high school. When she informed them about it, they were angry with her, although her sister visited the same vocational school too.
You have chosen this way, you have to go through it! She has good memories from her time in the vocational school.
She worked for 5 years in a sewing factory after completing school. Immediately after finishing the vocational school, she wanted to apply again for a high school. In the first year, her boss did not allow it, but 1 year later, she began an evening class of the high school.
Although she liked her workplace, after 5 years, she changed it and began to work as an administrator in the meat industry. Before the final exam I decided, that was all… I felt that I am clever and educated enough, with this knowledge I can manage my life. I really thought this about myself!
First she took part in a retraining, then started working at the Gandhi High School as a pedagogical assistant, where she finished her high school degree as a private student. The first director — unfortunately he is deceased — Janos Bogdan saw a potential in me. He got to know a young mother with a vocational school degree, without a high school degree, and he thought, I have a place in his teaching staff, because I am a good person, I have good values and I can have a good impact on the children, the pupils, the colleagues.
He gave me the chance to work there, and parallel to it to finish my studies and after than to begin a university study. She was 35 years old when she applied for a place in social pedagogy at the University of Pecs as a regular student.
During her studies, she worked continuously. When she obtained her university degree, she was 40 years old. I like it very much. According to the research of Forray and Hegedus, her educational biography can be seen as typical for Roma and Gypsy women in Hungary. The most common reason for delays is to have a family : Marianne suspended her educational career because she wanted to dedicate herself to her partner and. Self Expectation to adopt the traditional female role plays a big part here Kocze, Some people — how should I say it?
Another big problem is the lack of financial resources, which also causes delays in their Hungarian gypsy woman career. Marianne had a very strong learning motivation and tried to do both: to be a good mother and housewife and to achieve educational success. She could count on the support of her family. Her parents played a major role in her success; their support was necessary to overcome hard times and not to give up.
Teachers also played a ificant role as examples to follow and as individual supporters as well. I can name several teachers, who had an impact on my development.Hungarian gypsy woman
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